Anticardiolipin Antibody (ACA, Cardiolipin Antibodies)

  • Cardiolipin antibodies are the most common form of antiphospholipid antibodies. The antibodies play an important role in the blood clotting process. When autoantibodies (anticardiolipin antibodies, or ACA) are formed against cardiolipins, the patient has an increased risk of developing recurrent thrombosis.
  • There are three types of cardiolipin antibodies: IgG, IgM, and IgA. ACA testing is used to determine the cause of thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, and recurrent fetal loss, and in the evaluation of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

Normal Values:

  • IgG Cardiolipin Antibody
  • Negative: <10 GPL
  • Equivocal: 10–40 GPL
  • High Positive: >40 GPL
  • IgM Cardiolipin Antibody
  • Negative: <12 MPL
  • Equivocal: 12–40 MPL
  • High Positive: >40 MPL
  • IgA Cardiolipin Antibody
  • Negative: <12 APL
  • Equivocal: 12–40 APL
  • High Positive: >40 APL

Increased:

  • Antiphospholipid syndrome
  • Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
  • Psoriatic arthritis
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Sjögren’s syndrome
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus

References:
Manual of laboratory and diagnostic tests Frances Fischbach

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