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Prolymphocytes is characterized by medium-sized lymphocytes with prominent nucleoli, larger than B-CLL cells with a moderate amount of pale weakly basophilic cytoplasm,condensed (but more open than in B-CLL) has one round and prominent central nucleolus

Prolymphocytic Leukemia (PLL)

This is a rare chronic lymphoproliferative disorder seen in elderly in which patients have high total leukocyte count along with massive splenomegaly. The prolymphocytes are morphologically ...
The palpable purpura on the foot of this nearly 3-year-old boy are associated with the disease Henoch-Schönlein Purpura.

Difference between Petechiae, Purpura and Ecchymoses

Petechiae, Purpura and Ecchymoses are the three terms that refer to bleeding that occurs in the skin. the term “petechiae” refers to smaller lesions. “Purpura” ...
Chilomastix mesnili trophozoite (pointed end)

Chilomastix mesnili

Introduction Chilomastix mesnili is cosmopolitan in distribution although found more frequently in warm climates. It is thought to be non-pathogenic although the trophozoite has been ...
Trichuris trichiura adult male

Trichuris trichiura

Introduction Trichuris trichiura, more commonly known as the Whip Worm, due to the whip-like form of the body. These nematodes are most commonly seen in tropical climates and in areas ...
Capillaria Philippinensis ova

Capillaria Philippinensis

Introduction Intestinal capillariasis was first observed in the Philippines in 1962 and since then it has been noted, although less frequently in Thailand, with scattered reports from ...
Large and Small lymphocytes

White blood cells: Description, Classification and Formation

Description and Classification White blood cells are described and classified in several ways: 1. By function:Defense cells; phagocytes (granulocytes, macrophages) Cells that produce ...

Neutrophil Disorders

Leukocytosis, Granulocytosis, Neutrophilia All three terms indicate increased circulating neutrophils (but not an increase in eosinophils or basophils). This is a very commonly encountered ...
CLL - Blood smear from an adult male with a marked lymphocytosis

Lymphocyte Disorders

Lymphocytosis Increased numbers of lymphocytes in the blood may occur in infectious mononucleosis (mono), a self-limited viral infection common in young people, and acute infectious ...
Cold Agglutination x40

Cold Agglutination

This is a disorder in which RBCs – in their own serum or in other serum – clump together (agglutinate) in response to slight cooling (below 86° F it’s <30c). The clumping ...
Hypercellular bone marrow sample showing prominent erythroid hyperplasia and scattered, increased megakaryocytes of varying sizes and shapes


Polycythemia This is the opposite of anemia; the term literally means “many cells in the blood”. The blood becomes highly viscous (thick) and flows sluggishly. The condition ...
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