Iodamoeba bütschlii

Introduction
Iodamoeba bütschlii is a non-pathogenic amoeba with world wide distribution although not as common as E. coli or E. nana. Its life cycle is similar to that of E. histolytica but is non-invasive.

Morphology of Trophozoites
Trophozoites of I. bütschlii are 8-20μm and are actively motile. On a permanently stained fecal smear, a nucleus with a large karyosome is evident. Chromatin bodies form striations around the karyosome. The cytoplasm appears granular containing vacuoles with ingested bacteria and debris.

Iodamoeba butschlii - Trophozoite

Iodamoeba butschlii – Trophozoite

iodamoeba butschlii trophozoite

iodamoeba butschlii trophozoite


Morphology of cysts
Cysts of I. bütschlii are 9-15μm in diameter and have one nucleus in mature cysts usually eccentrically placed. Chromatoid bodies are not present. Glycogen is present as a compact well defined mass staining dark brown with iodine.

Iodamoeba butschlii cyst in saline wet mount - notice the large glycogen vacuole

Iodamoeba butschlii cyst in saline wet mount – notice the large glycogen vacuole

I. butschlii cyst (saline)

I. butschlii cyst (saline)

Iodamoeba butschlii - cysts

Iodamoeba butschlii – cysts

Iodamoeba bütschlii cyst with glycogen prominent vacuole (ironhematoxylin stain)

Iodamoeba bütschlii cyst with glycogen prominent vacuole (ironhematoxylin stain)

Iodamoeba butschlii stained with Iodine

Iodamoeba butschlii stained with Iodine

cyst of Iodamoeba butschlii

cyst of Iodamoeba butschlii


Laboratory Diagnosis
Laboratory diagnosis is made by finding the characteristic cysts in an iodine stained, formolether concentration method. Trophozoites are difficult to detect in a wet preparation.

Microscopy
Where amebic dysentery is suspected, the laboratory should be informed that a “hot stool” is being supplied so that it can be examined within twenty minutes of being passed. On cooling the ameba stop moving which then become very difficult to identify. Direct microscopy should be done by mixing a small amount of the specimen in 0.9% sodium chloride solution. This permits detection of motile trophozoites of Iodamoeba bütschlii and can also provide
information on the content of the stool (i.e., the presence of leucocytes and red blood cells). On search e.g. primarily for cysts, not for ameba, several stool samples are required to be examined, by direct microscopy and a sensitive concentration technique. Three negative stool samples are required before it can be accepted that there is no amebic infection. Microscopic examination of an amebic abscess aspirate e.g. in the liver or lungs, may reveal hematophagous trophozoites. It must be examined immediately by mixing a drop of warm saline with some aspirated pus on a microscope slide.

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