Proteins that transport metal ions

Transferrin transports iron The binding of ferric ions (Fe3+) to transferrin protects against the toxic effects of these ions. In inflammatory reactions, the iron–transferrin ...

Anticardiolipin Antibody (ACA, Cardiolipin Antibodies)

Cardiolipin antibodies are the most common form of antiphospholipid antibodies. The antibodies play an important role in the blood clotting process. When autoantibodies (anticardiolipin ...

The Acute Phase Response

The acute phase response is a nonspecific response to tissue injury or infection; it affects several organs and tissues. During the acute phase response, there is a characteristic ...

Cardiac Markers and time of elevation

Creatine kinase (CK) It’s an enzyme found primarily in the heart and skeletal muscles, and in smaller amounts in the brain. When the total CK level is substantially elevated, ...

Amylase Serum

Amylase is an enzyme found primarily in the pancreas and salivary glands and in minor amounts in the liver and fallopian tubes. Its function is to assist in the digestion of complex ...

Acid Phosphatase (Prostatic Acid Phosphatase [PAP])

Acid phosphatase, also known as prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP), is an enzyme found primarily in the prostate gland, with high concentrations found in the seminal fluid. It is ...

rbc morphology in urine

Ghost RBC seen in hypotonic urine Crenated RBC seen in hypertonic urine

amorphous crystals

Normal spermatozoa structure

Few common Artifacts and elements in Urinalysis

A. Hair B. Pollen grain C. Talcum powder D. Air bubble E. Fat droplets F. Cloth fiber   The object at the pointer is glove powder, it’s common artifact you might ...

Causes if False-Positive and False-Negative Urinalysis Results

   

Common causes of Urine discolouration

 
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